1031 Exchanges can be both a powerful wealth building tool and a way of adjusting investment portfolios to more accurately reflect life style choices and circumstances. An example would be an apartment owner wanting to trade into NNN Properties that require little to no management.
Selling tax free has never been easier. It's simple when you follow the right steps, and we'll be there for you at every phase in your transaction.
Feel free to contact us for your 1031 Exchange properties, or help with finding a Qualified Intermediary, Escrow Company, and real estate attorney. Not only can we help you sell and buy your next Exchange property, we also have working relationships with some of the best Escrow companies and attorneys specializing in this type of transactions.
For your convenience, we've provided the 13 important things you need to know that will walk you through the basic exchange process.
What is a Tax-Deferred Exchange?
In a typical transaction, the property owner is taxed on any gain realized from the sale. However, through a Section 1031 Exchange, the tax on the gain is deferred until some future date.
Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code provides that no gain or loss shall be recognized on the exchange of property held for productive use in a trade or business, or for investment. A tax-deferred exchange is a method by which a property owner trades one or more relinquished properties for one or more replacement properties of "like-kind", while deferring the payment of federal income taxes and some state taxes on the transaction.
The theory behind Section 1031 is that when a property owner has reinvested the sale proceeds into another property, the economic gain has not been realized in a way that generates funds to pay any tax. In other words, the taxpayer's investment is still the same, only the form has changed (e.g. vacant land exchanged for apartment building). Therefore, it would be unfair to force the taxpayer to pay tax on a "paper" gain.
The like-kind exchange under Section 1031 is tax-deferred, not tax-free. When the replacement property is ultimately sold (not as part of another exchange), the original deferred gain, plus any additional gain realized since the purchase of the replacement property, is subject to tax.
What are the general guidelines for a 1031 Exchange?
1) The value of the 1031 Exchange replacement property must be equal to or greater than the value of the relinquished property less any selling expense.
2) The equity in the 1031 Exchange replacement property must be equal to or greater than the equity in the relinquished property.
3) All of the net proceeds from the sale of the 1031 Exchange relinquished property must be used to acquire the 1031 replacement property.
4) Constructive receipt of sales proceeds is prohibited during the 1031 Exchange process.
What are the requirements for a valid exchange?
1) Qualifying Property - Certain types of property are specifically excluded from Section 1031 treatment: property held primarily for sale; inventories; stocks, bonds or notes; other securities or evidences of indebtedness; interests in a partnership; certificates of trusts or beneficial interest; and chooses in action. In general, if property is not specifically excluded, it can qualify for tax-deferred treatment.
2) Proper Purpose - Both the relinquished property and replacement property must be held for productive use in a trade or business or for investment. Property acquired for immediate resale will not qualify. The taxpayer's personal residence will not qualify.
3) Like Kind - Replacement property acquired in an exchange must be "like-kind" to the property being relinquished. All qualifying real property located in the United States is like-kind. Personal property that is relinquished must be either like-kind or like-class to the personal property which is acquired. Property located outside the United States is not like-kind to property located in the United States.
4) Exchange Requirement - The relinquished property must be exchanged for other property, rather than sold for cash and using the proceeds to buy the replacement property. Most deferred exchanges are facilitated by Qualified Intermediaries, who assist the taxpayer in meeting the requirements of Section 1031.
What is a Qualified Intermediary (QI)?
A Qualified Intermediary is an independent party who facilitates tax-deferred exchanges pursuant to Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code. The QI cannot be the taxpayer or a disqualified person.
Acting under a written agreement with the taxpayer, the QI acquires the relinquished property and transfers it to the buyer.
The QI holds the sales proceeds, to prevent the taxpayer from having actual or constructive receipt of the funds.
Finally, the QI acquires the replacement property and transfers it to the taxpayer to complete the exchange within the appropriate time limits.
Why is a Qualified Intermediary needed?
The exchange ends the moment the taxpayer has actual or constructive receipt (i.e. direct or indirect use or control) of the proceeds from the sale of the relinquished property. The use of a QI is a safe harbor established by the Treasury Regulations. If the taxpayer meets the requirements of this safe harbor, the IRS will not consider the taxpayer to be in receipt of the funds. The sale proceeds go directly to the QI, who holds them until they are needed to acquire the replacement property. The QI then delivers the funds directly to the closing agent.
What are the time restrictions on completing a Section 1031 exchange?
A taxpayer has 45 days after the date that the relinquished property is transferred to properly identify potential replacement properties. The exchange must be completed by the date that is 180 days after the transfer of the relinquished property, or the due date of the taxpayer's federal tax return for the year in which the relinquished property was transferred, whichever is earlier. Thus, for a calendar year taxpayer, the exchange period may be cut short for any exchange that begins after October 17th. However, the taxpayer can get the full 180 days, by obtaining an extension of the due date for filing the tax return.
What happens if the exchange cannot be completed within 180 days?
If the reverse exchange period exceeds 180 days, then the exchange is outside the safe harbor of Rev. Proc. 2000-37. With careful planning, it is possible to structure a reverse exchange that will go beyond 180 days, but the taxpayer will lose the presumptions that accompany compliance with the safe harbor.
Is there any limit to the number of properties that can be identified?
There are three rules that limit the number of properties that can be identified. The taxpayer must meet the requirements of at least one of these rules:
3 - Property Rule : The taxpayer may identify up to 3 potential replacement properties, without regard to their value; or
200% Rule : Any number of properties may be identified, but their total value cannot exceed twice the value of the relinquished property, or
95% Rule : The taxpayer may identify as many properties as he wants, but before the end of the exchange period the taxpayer must acquire replacement properties with an aggregate fair market value equal to at least 95% of the aggregate fair market value of all the identified properties.
I bought the property as a single person and I would like to acquire the replacement property together with my spouse?
The most conservative way is to stay consistent and complete the exchange the same way it was started and to add the spouse after the completion of the exchange. An exception can be made if there is a lender requirement that the spouse has to be added in order to qualify for a loan. If an exchange is planned well ahead of time, another solution would be to add the spouse to the title of the currently held property. Timing should be discussed with the CPA.
What is Boot?
Boot is any property received by the taxpayer in the exchange which is not like-kind to the relinquished property. Boot is characterized as either "cash" boot or "mortgage" boot. Realized Gain is recognized to the extent of net boot received.
What is Mortgage Boot?
Mortgage Boot consists of liabilities assumed or given up by the taxpayer. The taxpayer pays mortgage boot when he assumes or places debt on the replacement property. The taxpayer receives mortgage boot when he is relieved of debt on the replacement property. If the taxpayer does not acquire debt that is equal to or greater than the debt that was paid off, they are considered to be relieved of debt. The debt relief portion is taxable, unless offset when netted against other boot in the transaction.
What is Cash Boot?
Cash Boot is any boot received by the taxpayer, other than mortgage boot. Cash boot may be in the form of money or other property.
What are the boot "netting" rules?
Cash boot paid offsets cash boot received
Cash boot paid offsets mortgage boot received (debt relief)
Mortgage boot paid (debt assumed) offsets mortgage boot received
Mortgage boot paid does not offset cash boot received
If your considering doing a 1031 exchange the first step is to find out how much equity you have. Fill out the form below with your property information and we will get back to you with a free valuation and analysis of your equity position.